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Петтай: мультикультурность — это ключ к выживанию

«Эстонские дети должны иметь возможность расти с детьми
других национальностей с раннего возраста», — считает социолог Ирис Петтай.
Фото: Альберт Труувяэрт
Эстонии, как маленькой стране, повезло, что в ней проживает большое количество представителей других национальностей.

Ирис Петтай

социолог, глава Эстонского института открытого общества

Я не читала столь острых статей по межнациональным отношениям и политике интеграции за последние двадцать лет. Являются ли дети Эстонии инструментами политики интеграции и как к этому утверждению относиться? Почему она появилась именно сейчас? Через год — местные выборы, и статья, вероятно, является как посланием к избирателям (национальным экстремистам), так и сигналом для конкурентов, что время подготовки будет нелегким.

Она написана малоизвестной предпринимательницей и матерью (не высокопоставленным политиком), которая хорошо знакома с образом мышления и ценностями своей целевой группы (национальных экстремистов). Публикация на столь деликатную тему (эксплуатация детей, которые, по мнению автора, стали инструментами интеграционной политики) для них.

Я не вижу проблемы в том, что русскоговорящих в Эстонии много, примерно треть населения, ведь интеграция идет успешно. Я также считаю, что маленькой Эстонии повезло, что тут живет большое количество представителей других национальностей, именно поэтому Эстония быстро развивалась.

Мультикультурность не только приемлема для Эстонии, но и является ключом к выживанию в современном мире. Было бы очень глупо и недальновидно изолировать наших детей от детей других национальностей. Безусловно, единая эстонская школа (а также детский сад, кружки и т. д.) не является опасным экспериментом с эстонскими детьми.

Эстонские дети должны иметь возможность общаться и расти с детьми других национальностей с раннего возраста. Терпимости и сосуществованию с другими культурами и традициями необходимо учиться с рождения. Дистанцировать себя от других народов, живущих рядом с вами, опасно. Инкапсуляция имеет крайне негативные последствия, приводит к неблагоприятному положению меньшинств на рынке труда, их изоляции и дискриминации.

Я не уверена, что дети, о которых пишет автор, и их родители хотят впоследствии жить в стране с острыми социальными проблемами, но, к сожалению, поощрение изоляции и дистанцирования может привести к такому будущему. Опыт большинства стран мира показал, что нетерпимость и изоляция сопряжены с риском и часто заканчиваются конфликтом или катастрофой, в то время как рост уровня толерантности быстро дает положительные результаты.

В толерантном обществе у человека вне зависимости от национальности есть возможность получить хорошее образование, заняться интересной работой, сделать карьеру — реализовать себя по максимуму. В толерантном обществе меньше групп социального риска: бедных, наркоманов, алкоголиков, больных СПИДом, проституток и так далее. Напротив, в нетерпимом обществе, где мало доверия к незнакомцам, а другие нации рассматриваются только как источник опасности, члены национальных меньшинств с большей вероятностью будут маргинализированы и подвержены риску.

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